Note

Click here to download the full example code

Compute LCMV source power [1] in a grid of time-frequency windows and display results.

[1] | Dalal et al. Five-dimensional neuroimaging: Localization of the time-frequency dynamics of cortical activity. NeuroImage (2008) vol. 40 (4) pp. 1686-1700 |

```
# Author: Roman Goj <roman.goj@gmail.com>
#
# License: BSD (3-clause)
import mne
from mne import compute_covariance
from mne.datasets import sample
from mne.event import make_fixed_length_events
from mne.beamformer import tf_lcmv
from mne.viz import plot_source_spectrogram
print(__doc__)
data_path = sample.data_path()
raw_fname = data_path + '/MEG/sample/sample_audvis_raw.fif'
noise_fname = data_path + '/MEG/sample/ernoise_raw.fif'
event_fname = data_path + '/MEG/sample/sample_audvis_raw-eve.fif'
fname_fwd = data_path + '/MEG/sample/sample_audvis-meg-eeg-oct-6-fwd.fif'
subjects_dir = data_path + '/subjects'
label_name = 'Aud-lh'
fname_label = data_path + '/MEG/sample/labels/%s.label' % label_name
```

Read raw data, preload to allow filtering

```
raw = mne.io.read_raw_fif(raw_fname, preload=True)
raw.info['bads'] = ['MEG 2443'] # 1 bad MEG channel
# Pick a selection of magnetometer channels. A subset of all channels was used
# to speed up the example. For a solution based on all MEG channels use
# meg=True, selection=None and add grad=4000e-13 to the reject dictionary.
# We could do this with a "picks" argument to Epochs and the LCMV functions,
# but here we use raw.pick_types() to save memory.
left_temporal_channels = mne.read_selection('Left-temporal')
raw.pick_types(meg='mag', eeg=False, eog=False, stim=False, exclude='bads',
selection=left_temporal_channels)
reject = dict(mag=4e-12)
# Re-normalize our empty-room projectors, which should be fine after
# subselection
raw.info.normalize_proj()
# Setting time limits for reading epochs. Note that tmin and tmax are set so
# that time-frequency beamforming will be performed for a wider range of time
# points than will later be displayed on the final spectrogram. This ensures
# that all time bins displayed represent an average of an equal number of time
# windows.
tmin, tmax = -0.5, 0.75 # s
tmin_plot, tmax_plot = -0.3, 0.5 # s
# Read epochs. Note that preload is set to False to enable tf_lcmv to read the
# underlying raw object.
# Filtering is then performed on raw data in tf_lcmv and the epochs
# parameters passed here are used to create epochs from filtered data. However,
# reading epochs without preloading means that bad epoch rejection is delayed
# until later. To perform bad epoch rejection based on the reject parameter
# passed here, run epochs.drop_bad(). This is done automatically in
# tf_lcmv to reject bad epochs based on unfiltered data.
event_id = 1
events = mne.read_events(event_fname)
epochs = mne.Epochs(raw, events, event_id, tmin, tmax, proj=True,
baseline=None, preload=False, reject=reject)
# Read empty room noise, preload to allow filtering, and pick subselection
raw_noise = mne.io.read_raw_fif(noise_fname, preload=True)
raw_noise.info['bads'] = ['MEG 2443'] # 1 bad MEG channel
raw_noise.pick_types(meg='mag', eeg=False, eog=False, stim=False,
exclude='bads', selection=left_temporal_channels)
raw_noise.info.normalize_proj()
# Create artificial events for empty room noise data
events_noise = make_fixed_length_events(raw_noise, event_id, duration=1.)
# Create an epochs object using preload=True to reject bad epochs based on
# unfiltered data
epochs_noise = mne.Epochs(raw_noise, events_noise, event_id, tmin, tmax,
proj=True, baseline=None,
preload=True, reject=reject)
# Make sure the number of noise epochs is the same as data epochs
epochs_noise = epochs_noise[:len(epochs.events)]
# Read forward operator
forward = mne.read_forward_solution(fname_fwd)
# Read label
label = mne.read_label(fname_label)
```

Out:

```
Opening raw data file /home/circleci/mne_data/MNE-sample-data/MEG/sample/sample_audvis_raw.fif...
Read a total of 3 projection items:
PCA-v1 (1 x 102) idle
PCA-v2 (1 x 102) idle
PCA-v3 (1 x 102) idle
Range : 25800 ... 192599 = 42.956 ... 320.670 secs
Ready.
Current compensation grade : 0
Reading 0 ... 166799 = 0.000 ... 277.714 secs...
72 matching events found
No baseline correction applied
Not setting metadata
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
3 projection items activated
Opening raw data file /home/circleci/mne_data/MNE-sample-data/MEG/sample/ernoise_raw.fif...
Isotrak not found
Read a total of 3 projection items:
PCA-v1 (1 x 102) idle
PCA-v2 (1 x 102) idle
PCA-v3 (1 x 102) idle
Range : 19800 ... 85867 = 32.966 ... 142.965 secs
Ready.
Current compensation grade : 0
Reading 0 ... 66067 = 0.000 ... 109.999 secs...
110 matching events found
No baseline correction applied
Not setting metadata
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
3 projection items activated
Loading data for 110 events and 751 original time points ...
1 bad epochs dropped
Reading forward solution from /home/circleci/mne_data/MNE-sample-data/MEG/sample/sample_audvis-meg-eeg-oct-6-fwd.fif...
Reading a source space...
Computing patch statistics...
Patch information added...
Distance information added...
[done]
Reading a source space...
Computing patch statistics...
Patch information added...
Distance information added...
[done]
2 source spaces read
Desired named matrix (kind = 3523) not available
Read MEG forward solution (7498 sources, 306 channels, free orientations)
Desired named matrix (kind = 3523) not available
Read EEG forward solution (7498 sources, 60 channels, free orientations)
MEG and EEG forward solutions combined
Source spaces transformed to the forward solution coordinate frame
```

Time-frequency beamforming based on LCMV

```
# Setting frequency bins as in Dalal et al. 2008 (high gamma was subdivided)
freq_bins = [(4, 12), (12, 30), (30, 55), (65, 299)] # Hz
win_lengths = [0.3, 0.2, 0.15, 0.1] # s
# Setting the time step
tstep = 0.05
# Setting the whitened data covariance regularization parameter
data_reg = 0.001
# Subtract evoked response prior to computation?
subtract_evoked = False
# Calculating covariance from empty room noise. To use baseline data as noise
# substitute raw for raw_noise, epochs.events for epochs_noise.events, tmin for
# desired baseline length, and 0 for tmax_plot.
# Note, if using baseline data, the averaged evoked response in the baseline
# period should be flat.
noise_covs = []
for (l_freq, h_freq) in freq_bins:
raw_band = raw_noise.copy()
raw_band.filter(l_freq, h_freq, n_jobs=1, fir_design='firwin')
epochs_band = mne.Epochs(raw_band, epochs_noise.events, event_id,
tmin=tmin_plot, tmax=tmax_plot, baseline=None,
proj=True)
noise_cov = compute_covariance(epochs_band, method='shrunk')
noise_covs.append(noise_cov)
del raw_band # to save memory
# Computing LCMV solutions for time-frequency windows in a label in source
# space for faster computation, use label=None for full solution
stcs = tf_lcmv(epochs, forward, noise_covs, tmin, tmax, tstep, win_lengths,
freq_bins=freq_bins, subtract_evoked=subtract_evoked,
reg=data_reg, label=label)
# Plotting source spectrogram for source with maximum activity.
# Note that tmin and tmax are set to display a time range that is smaller than
# the one for which beamforming estimates were calculated. This ensures that
# all time bins shown are a result of smoothing across an identical number of
# time windows.
plot_source_spectrogram(stcs, freq_bins, tmin=tmin_plot, tmax=tmax_plot,
source_index=None, colorbar=True)
```

Out:

```
Setting up band-pass filter from 4 - 12 Hz
l_trans_bandwidth chosen to be 2.0 Hz
h_trans_bandwidth chosen to be 3.0 Hz
Filter length of 991 samples (1.650 sec) selected
72 matching events found
No baseline correction applied
Not setting metadata
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
3 projection items activated
Loading data for 72 events and 481 original time points ...
0 bad epochs dropped
Estimating covariance using SHRUNK
Done.
Number of samples used : 34632
[done]
Setting up band-pass filter from 12 - 30 Hz
l_trans_bandwidth chosen to be 3.0 Hz
h_trans_bandwidth chosen to be 7.5 Hz
Filter length of 661 samples (1.101 sec) selected
72 matching events found
No baseline correction applied
Not setting metadata
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
3 projection items activated
Loading data for 72 events and 481 original time points ...
0 bad epochs dropped
Estimating covariance using SHRUNK
Done.
Number of samples used : 34632
[done]
Setting up band-pass filter from 30 - 55 Hz
l_trans_bandwidth chosen to be 7.5 Hz
h_trans_bandwidth chosen to be 13.8 Hz
Filter length of 265 samples (0.441 sec) selected
72 matching events found
No baseline correction applied
Not setting metadata
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
3 projection items activated
Loading data for 72 events and 481 original time points ...
0 bad epochs dropped
Estimating covariance using SHRUNK
Done.
Number of samples used : 34632
[done]
Setting up band-pass filter from 65 - 3e+02 Hz
l_trans_bandwidth chosen to be 16.2 Hz
h_trans_bandwidth chosen to be 1.3 Hz
Filter length of 1517 samples (2.526 sec) selected
72 matching events found
No baseline correction applied
Not setting metadata
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
3 projection items activated
Loading data for 72 events and 481 original time points ...
0 bad epochs dropped
Estimating covariance using SHRUNK
Done.
Number of samples used : 34632
[done]
Loading data for 72 events and 751 original time points ...
0 bad epochs dropped
Setting up band-pass filter from 4 - 12 Hz
72 matching events found
No baseline correction applied
Not setting metadata
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
3 projection items activated
Loading data for 72 events and 751 original time points ...
0 bad epochs dropped
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -500 to -200 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -450 to -150 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -400 to -100 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -350 to -49 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -300 to 0 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -250 to 49 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -199 to 100 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -149 to 150 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -99 to 200 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -49 to 250 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 0 to 300 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 50 to 350 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 100 to 400 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 150 to 450 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 200 to 500 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 250 to 550 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 300 to 600 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 350 to 650 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 400 to 700 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 450 to 750 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Setting up band-pass filter from 12 - 30 Hz
72 matching events found
No baseline correction applied
Not setting metadata
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
3 projection items activated
Loading data for 72 events and 751 original time points ...
0 bad epochs dropped
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -500 to -300 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -450 to -250 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -400 to -200 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -350 to -149 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -300 to -99 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -250 to -49 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -199 to 0 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -149 to 50 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -99 to 100 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -49 to 150 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 0 to 200 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 50 to 250 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 100 to 300 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 150 to 350 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 200 to 400 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 250 to 450 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 300 to 500 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 350 to 550 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 400 to 600 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 450 to 650 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 500 to 700 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 550 to 750 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Setting up band-pass filter from 30 - 55 Hz
72 matching events found
No baseline correction applied
Not setting metadata
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
3 projection items activated
Loading data for 72 events and 751 original time points ...
0 bad epochs dropped
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -500 to -350 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -450 to -300 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -400 to -250 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -350 to -199 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -300 to -150 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -250 to -100 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -199 to -49 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -149 to 0 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -99 to 50 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -49 to 100 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 0 to 150 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 50 to 200 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 100 to 250 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 150 to 300 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 200 to 350 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 250 to 400 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 300 to 450 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 350 to 500 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 400 to 550 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 450 to 600 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 500 to 650 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 550 to 700 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 600 to 750 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Setting up band-pass filter from 65 - 3e+02 Hz
72 matching events found
No baseline correction applied
Not setting metadata
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
3 projection items activated
Loading data for 72 events and 751 original time points ...
0 bad epochs dropped
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -500 to -400 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -450 to -350 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -400 to -300 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -350 to -249 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -300 to -199 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -250 to -150 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -199 to -99 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -149 to -49 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -99 to 0 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -49 to 50 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 0 to 100 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 50 to 150 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 100 to 200 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 150 to 250 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 200 to 300 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 250 to 350 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 300 to 400 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 350 to 450 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 400 to 500 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 450 to 550 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 500 to 600 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 550 to 650 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 600 to 700 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 650 to 750 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MAG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MAG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
```

**Total running time of the script:** ( 0 minutes 24.388 seconds)