Brainstorm CTF phantom dataset tutorial

Here we compute the evoked from raw for the Brainstorm CTF phantom tutorial dataset. For comparison, see [1] and:


[1]Tadel F, Baillet S, Mosher JC, Pantazis D, Leahy RM. Brainstorm: A User-Friendly Application for MEG/EEG Analysis. Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience, vol. 2011, Article ID 879716, 13 pages, 2011. doi:10.1155/2011/879716
# Authors: Eric Larson <>
# License: BSD (3-clause)

import os.path as op
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

import mne
from mne import fit_dipole
from mne.datasets.brainstorm import bst_phantom_ctf
from import read_raw_ctf


The data were collected with a CTF system at 2400 Hz.

data_path = bst_phantom_ctf.data_path()

# Switch to these to use the higher-SNR data:
# raw_path = op.join(data_path, 'phantom_200uA_20150709_01.ds')
# dip_freq = 7.
raw_path = op.join(data_path, 'phantom_20uA_20150603_03.ds')
dip_freq = 23.
erm_path = op.join(data_path, 'emptyroom_20150709_01.ds')
raw = read_raw_ctf(raw_path, preload=True)

The sinusoidal signal is generated on channel HDAC006, so we can use that to obtain precise timing.

sinusoid, times = raw[raw.ch_names.index('HDAC006-4408')]
plt.plot(times[times < 1.], sinusoid.T[times < 1.])

Let’s create some events using this signal by thresholding the sinusoid.

events = np.where(np.diff(sinusoid > 0.5) > 0)[1] + raw.first_samp
events = np.vstack((events, np.zeros_like(events), np.ones_like(events))).T

The CTF software compensation works reasonably well:


But here we can get slightly better noise suppression, lower localization bias, and a better dipole goodness of fit with spatio-temporal (tSSS) Maxwell filtering:

raw.apply_gradient_compensation(0)  # must un-do software compensation first
mf_kwargs = dict(origin=(0., 0., 0.), st_duration=10.)
raw = mne.preprocessing.maxwell_filter(raw, **mf_kwargs)

Our choice of tmin and tmax should capture exactly one cycle, so we can make the unusual choice of baselining using the entire epoch when creating our evoked data. We also then crop to a single time point (@t=0) because this is a peak in our signal.

tmin = -0.5 / dip_freq
tmax = -tmin
epochs = mne.Epochs(raw, events, event_id=1, tmin=tmin, tmax=tmax,
                    baseline=(None, None))
evoked = epochs.average()
evoked.crop(0., 0.)

Let’s use a sphere head geometry model and let’s see the coordinate alignement and the sphere location.

sphere = mne.make_sphere_model(r0=(0., 0., 0.), head_radius=None)

mne.viz.plot_alignment(, subject='sample',
                       meg='helmet', bem=sphere, dig=True,
del raw, epochs

To do a dipole fit, let’s use the covariance provided by the empty room recording.

raw_erm = read_raw_ctf(erm_path).apply_gradient_compensation(0)
raw_erm = mne.preprocessing.maxwell_filter(raw_erm, coord_frame='meg',
cov = mne.compute_raw_covariance(raw_erm)
del raw_erm

dip, residual = fit_dipole(evoked, cov, sphere)

Compare the actual position with the estimated one.

expected_pos = np.array([18., 0., 49.])
diff = np.sqrt(np.sum((dip.pos[0] * 1000 - expected_pos) ** 2))
print('Actual pos:     %s mm' % np.array_str(expected_pos, precision=1))
print('Estimated pos:  %s mm' % np.array_str(dip.pos[0] * 1000, precision=1))
print('Difference:     %0.1f mm' % diff)
print('Amplitude:      %0.1f nAm' % (1e9 * dip.amplitude[0]))
print('GOF:            %0.1f %%' % dip.gof[0])


Actual pos:     [18.  0. 49.] mm
Estimated pos:  [18.5 -2.2 44.6] mm
Difference:     4.9 mm
Amplitude:      10.0 nAm
GOF:            96.5 %

Total running time of the script: ( 0 minutes 20.210 seconds)

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