mne.apply_forward(fwd, stc, info, start=None, stop=None, use_cps=True, on_missing='raise', verbose=None)[source]

Project source space currents to sensor space using a forward operator.

The sensor space data is computed for all channels present in fwd. Use pick_channels_forward or pick_types_forward to restrict the solution to a subset of channels.

The function returns an Evoked object, which is constructed from evoked_template. The evoked_template should be from the same MEG system on which the original data was acquired. An exception will be raised if the forward operator contains channels that are not present in the template.


Forward operator to use.


The source estimate from which the sensor space data is computed.

infoinstance of Info

Measurement info to generate the evoked.

startint, optional

Index of first time sample (index not time is seconds).

stopint, optional

Index of first time sample not to include (index not time is seconds).


Whether to use cortical patch statistics to define normal orientations for surfaces (default True).

New in version 0.15.


Can be 'raise' (default) to raise an error, 'warn' to emit a warning, or 'ignore' to ignore when stc has vertices that are not in fwd. Default is “raise”.

New in version 0.18.

verbosebool, str, int, or None

If not None, override default verbose level (see mne.verbose() and Logging documentation for more). If used, it should be passed as a keyword-argument only.


Evoked object with computed sensor space data.

See also


Compute sensor space data and return a Raw object.

Examples using mne.apply_forward