mne.make_forward_dipole(dipole, bem, info, trans=None, n_jobs=1, verbose=None)[source]

Convert dipole object to source estimate and calculate forward operator.

The instance of Dipole is converted to a discrete source space, which is then combined with a BEM or a sphere model and the sensor information in info to form a forward operator.

The source estimate object (with the forward operator) can be projected to sensor-space using mne.simulation.simulate_evoked().


If the (unique) time points of the dipole object are unevenly spaced, the first output will be a list of single-timepoint source estimates.

dipoleinstance of Dipole

Dipole object containing position, orientation and amplitude of one or more dipoles. Multiple simultaneous dipoles may be defined by assigning them identical times.

bemstr | dict

The BEM filename (str) or a loaded sphere model (dict).

infoinstance of Info

The measurement information dictionary. It is sensor-information etc., e.g., from a real data file.

transstr | None

The head<->MRI transform filename. Must be provided unless BEM is a sphere model.


The number of jobs to run in parallel (default 1). Requires the joblib package.

verbosebool, str, int, or None

If not None, override default verbose level (see mne.verbose() and Logging documentation for more). If used, it should be passed as a keyword-argument only.

fwdinstance of Forward

The forward solution corresponding to the source estimate(s).

stcinstance of VolSourceEstimate | list of VolSourceEstimate

The dipoles converted to a discrete set of points and associated time courses. If the time points of the dipole are unevenly spaced, a list of single-timepoint source estimates are returned.


New in version 0.12.0.