In this vignette we will develop content that shows how to do averaging by hand in R.

## Importing MNE version=0.18.dev0, path='/Users/dengeman/github/mne-python/mne'

Let’s read in the raw data.

## <Raw  |  sample_audvis_filt-0-40_raw.fif, n_channels x n_times : 376 x 41700 (277.7 sec), ~123.3 MB, data loaded>

We’ll get the epochs from mne and then average by hand.

## Deleting whitespace in channel names ...

Let’s plot the EEG channels.

We can clearly see that the visual responses show more energy at greater latency than the auditory responses. Both peak around 100 milliseconds.