Note

Click here to download the full example code

# Compute seed-based time-frequency connectivity in sensor space¶

Computes the connectivity between a seed-gradiometer close to the visual cortex and all other gradiometers. The connectivity is computed in the time-frequency domain using Morlet wavelets and the debiased squared weighted phase lag index 1 is used as connectivity metric.

```
# Author: Martin Luessi <mluessi@nmr.mgh.harvard.edu>
#
# License: BSD (3-clause)
import numpy as np
import mne
from mne import io
from mne.connectivity import spectral_connectivity, seed_target_indices
from mne.datasets import sample
from mne.time_frequency import AverageTFR
print(__doc__)
```

Set parameters

```
data_path = sample.data_path()
raw_fname = data_path + '/MEG/sample/sample_audvis_filt-0-40_raw.fif'
event_fname = data_path + '/MEG/sample/sample_audvis_filt-0-40_raw-eve.fif'
# Setup for reading the raw data
raw = io.read_raw_fif(raw_fname)
events = mne.read_events(event_fname)
# Add a bad channel
raw.info['bads'] += ['MEG 2443']
# Pick MEG gradiometers
picks = mne.pick_types(raw.info, meg='grad', eeg=False, stim=False, eog=True,
exclude='bads')
# Create epochs for left-visual condition
event_id, tmin, tmax = 3, -0.2, 0.5
epochs = mne.Epochs(raw, events, event_id, tmin, tmax, picks=picks,
baseline=(None, 0), reject=dict(grad=4000e-13, eog=150e-6),
preload=True)
# Use 'MEG 2343' as seed
seed_ch = 'MEG 2343'
picks_ch_names = [raw.ch_names[i] for i in picks]
# Create seed-target indices for connectivity computation
seed = picks_ch_names.index(seed_ch)
targets = np.arange(len(picks))
indices = seed_target_indices(seed, targets)
# Define wavelet frequencies and number of cycles
cwt_freqs = np.arange(7, 30, 2)
cwt_n_cycles = cwt_freqs / 7.
# Run the connectivity analysis using 2 parallel jobs
sfreq = raw.info['sfreq'] # the sampling frequency
con, freqs, times, _, _ = spectral_connectivity(
epochs, indices=indices,
method='wpli2_debiased', mode='cwt_morlet', sfreq=sfreq,
cwt_freqs=cwt_freqs, cwt_n_cycles=cwt_n_cycles, n_jobs=1)
# Mark the seed channel with a value of 1.0, so we can see it in the plot
con[np.where(indices[1] == seed)] = 1.0
# Show topography of connectivity from seed
title = 'WPLI2 - Visual - Seed %s' % seed_ch
layout = mne.find_layout(epochs.info, 'meg') # use full layout
tfr = AverageTFR(epochs.info, con, times, freqs, len(epochs))
tfr.plot_topo(fig_facecolor='w', font_color='k', border='k')
```

Out:

```
Opening raw data file /home/circleci/mne_data/MNE-sample-data/MEG/sample/sample_audvis_filt-0-40_raw.fif...
Read a total of 4 projection items:
PCA-v1 (1 x 102) idle
PCA-v2 (1 x 102) idle
PCA-v3 (1 x 102) idle
Average EEG reference (1 x 60) idle
Range : 6450 ... 48149 = 42.956 ... 320.665 secs
Ready.
Not setting metadata
Not setting metadata
73 matching events found
Setting baseline interval to [-0.19979521315838786, 0.0] sec
Applying baseline correction (mode: mean)
4 projection items activated
Loading data for 73 events and 106 original time points ...
Rejecting epoch based on EOG : ['EOG 061']
Rejecting epoch based on EOG : ['EOG 061']
Rejecting epoch based on EOG : ['EOG 061']
Rejecting epoch based on EOG : ['EOG 061']
Rejecting epoch based on EOG : ['EOG 061']
Rejecting epoch based on EOG : ['EOG 061']
6 bad epochs dropped
Connectivity computation...
computing connectivity for 204 connections
using t=-0.200s..0.499s for estimation (106 points)
frequencies: 9.0Hz..29.0Hz (11 points)
using CWT with Morlet wavelets to estimate spectra
the following metrics will be computed: Debiased WPLI Square
computing connectivity for epoch 1
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[Connectivity computation done]
No baseline correction applied
```

## References¶

- 1
Martin Vinck, Robert Oostenveld, Marijn van Wingerden, Franscesco Battaglia, and Cyriel M.A. Pennartz. An improved index of phase-synchronization for electrophysiological data in the presence of volume-conduction, noise and sample-size bias.

*NeuroImage*, 55(4):1548–1565, 2011. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.01.055.

**Total running time of the script:** ( 0 minutes 7.978 seconds)

**Estimated memory usage:** 8 MB