mne.viz.plot_raw(raw, events=None, duration=10.0, start=0.0, n_channels=20, bgcolor='w', color=None, bad_color='lightgray', event_color='cyan', scalings=None, remove_dc=True, order=None, show_options=False, title=None, show=True, block=False, highpass=None, lowpass=None, filtorder=4, clipping=1.5, show_first_samp=False, proj=True, group_by='type', butterfly=False, decim='auto', noise_cov=None, event_id=None, show_scrollbars=True, show_scalebars=True, time_format='float', precompute=None, use_opengl=None, picks=None, *, theme=None, overview_mode=None, splash=True, verbose=None)[source]#

Plot raw data.

rawinstance of Raw

The raw data to plot.

eventsarray | None

Events to show with vertical bars.


Time window (s) to plot. The lesser of this value and the duration of the raw file will be used.


Initial time to show (can be changed dynamically once plotted). If show_first_samp is True, then it is taken relative to raw.first_samp.


Number of channels to plot at once. Defaults to 20. The lesser of n_channels and len(raw.ch_names) will be shown. Has no effect if order is ‘position’, ‘selection’ or ‘butterfly’.

bgcolorcolor object

Color of the background.

colordict | color object | None

Color for the data traces. If None, defaults to:

dict(mag='darkblue', grad='b', eeg='k', eog='k', ecg='m',
     emg='k', ref_meg='steelblue', misc='k', stim='k',
     resp='k', chpi='k')
bad_colorcolor object

Color to make bad channels.

event_colorcolor object | dict | None

Color(s) to use for events. To show all events in the same color, pass any matplotlib-compatible color. To color events differently, pass a dict that maps event names or integer event numbers to colors (must include entries for all events, or include a “fallback” entry with key -1). If None, colors are chosen from the current Matplotlib color cycle. Defaults to 'cyan'.

scalings‘auto’ | dict | None

Scaling factors for the traces. If a dictionary where any value is 'auto', the scaling factor is set to match the 99.5th percentile of the respective data. If 'auto', all scalings (for all channel types) are set to 'auto'. If any values are 'auto' and the data is not preloaded, a subset up to 100 MB will be loaded. If None, defaults to:

dict(mag=1e-12, grad=4e-11, eeg=20e-6, eog=150e-6, ecg=5e-4,
     emg=1e-3, ref_meg=1e-12, misc=1e-3, stim=1,
     resp=1, chpi=1e-4, whitened=1e2)


A particular scaling value s corresponds to half of the visualized signal range around zero (i.e. from 0 to +s or from 0 to -s). For example, the default scaling of 20e-6 (20µV) for EEG signals means that the visualized range will be 40 µV (20 µV in the positive direction and 20 µV in the negative direction).


If True remove DC component when plotting data.

orderarray of int | None

Order in which to plot data. If the array is shorter than the number of channels, only the given channels are plotted. If None (default), all channels are plotted. If group_by is 'position' or 'selection', the order parameter is used only for selecting the channels to be plotted.


If True, a dialog for options related to projection is shown.

titlestr | None

The title of the window. If None, and either the filename of the raw object or ‘<unknown>’ will be displayed as title.


Show figure if True.


Whether to halt program execution until the figure is closed. Useful for setting bad channels on the fly by clicking on a line. May not work on all systems / platforms. (Only Qt) If you run from a script, this needs to be True or a Qt-eventloop needs to be started somewhere else in the script (e.g. if you want to implement the browser inside another Qt-Application).

highpassfloat | None

Highpass to apply when displaying data.

lowpassfloat | None

Lowpass to apply when displaying data. If highpass > lowpass, a bandstop rather than bandpass filter will be applied.


Filtering order. 0 will use FIR filtering with MNE defaults. Other values will construct an IIR filter of the given order and apply it with filtfilt() (making the effective order twice filtorder). Filtering may produce some edge artifacts (at the left and right edges) of the signals during display.

Changed in version 0.18: Support for filtorder=0 to use FIR filtering.

clippingstr | float | None

If None, channels are allowed to exceed their designated bounds in the plot. If “clamp”, then values are clamped to the appropriate range for display, creating step-like artifacts. If “transparent”, then excessive values are not shown, creating gaps in the traces. If float, clipping occurs for values beyond the clipping multiple of their dedicated range, so clipping=1. is an alias for clipping='transparent'.

Changed in version 0.21: Support for float, and default changed from None to 1.5.


If True, show time axis relative to the raw.first_samp.


Whether to apply projectors prior to plotting (default is True). Individual projectors can be enabled/disabled interactively (see Notes). This argument only affects the plot; use raw.apply_proj() to modify the data stored in the Raw object.


How to group channels. 'type' groups by channel type, 'original' plots in the order of ch_names, 'selection' uses Elekta’s channel groupings (only works for Neuromag data), 'position' groups the channels by the positions of the sensors. 'selection' and 'position' modes allow custom selections by using a lasso selector on the topomap. In butterfly mode, 'type' and 'original' group the channels by type, whereas 'selection' and 'position' use regional grouping. 'type' and 'original' modes are ignored when order is not None. Defaults to 'type'.


Whether to start in butterfly mode. Defaults to False.

decimint | ‘auto’

Amount to decimate the data during display for speed purposes. You should only decimate if the data are sufficiently low-passed, otherwise aliasing can occur. The ‘auto’ mode (default) uses the decimation that results in a sampling rate least three times larger than min(info['lowpass'], lowpass) (e.g., a 40 Hz lowpass will result in at least a 120 Hz displayed sample rate).

noise_covinstance of Covariance | str | None

Noise covariance used to whiten the data while plotting. Whitened data channels are scaled by scalings['whitened'], and their channel names are shown in italic. Can be a string to load a covariance from disk. See also mne.Evoked.plot_white() for additional inspection of noise covariance properties when whitening evoked data. For data processed with SSS, the effective dependence between magnetometers and gradiometers may introduce differences in scaling, consider using mne.Evoked.plot_white().

New in v0.16.0.

event_iddict | None

Event IDs used to show at event markers (default None shows the event numbers).

New in v0.16.0.


Whether to show scrollbars when the plot is initialized. Can be toggled after initialization by pressing z (“zen mode”) while the plot window is focused. Default is True.

New in v0.19.0.


Whether to show scale bars when the plot is initialized. Can be toggled after initialization by pressing s while the plot window is focused. Default is True.

New in v0.20.0.

time_format‘float’ | ‘clock’

Style of time labels on the horizontal axis. If 'float', labels will be number of seconds from the start of the recording. If 'clock', labels will show “clock time” (hours/minutes/seconds) inferred from['meas_date']. Default is 'float'.

New in v0.24.

precomputebool | str

Whether to load all data (not just the visible portion) into RAM and apply preprocessing (e.g., projectors) to the full data array in a separate processor thread, instead of window-by-window during scrolling. The default None uses the MNE_BROWSER_PRECOMPUTE variable, which defaults to 'auto'. 'auto' compares available RAM space to the expected size of the precomputed data, and precomputes only if enough RAM is available. This is only used with the Qt backend.

New in v0.24.

Changed in version 1.0: Support for the MNE_BROWSER_PRECOMPUTE config variable.

use_openglbool | None

Whether to use OpenGL when rendering the plot (requires pyopengl). May increase performance, but effect is dependent on system CPU and graphics hardware. Only works if using the Qt backend. Default is None, which will use False unless the user configuration variable MNE_BROWSER_USE_OPENGL is set to 'true', see mne.set_config().

New in v0.24.

picksstr | array_like | slice | None

Channels to include. Slices and lists of integers will be interpreted as channel indices. In lists, channel type strings (e.g., ['meg', 'eeg']) will pick channels of those types, channel name strings (e.g., ['MEG0111', 'MEG2623'] will pick the given channels. Can also be the string values “all” to pick all channels, or “data” to pick data channels. None (default) will pick all channels. Note that channels in info['bads'] will be included if their names or indices are explicitly provided.

themestr | path-like

Can be “auto”, “light”, or “dark” or a path-like to a custom stylesheet. For Dark-Mode and automatic Dark-Mode-Detection, qdarkstyle and darkdetect, respectively, are required. If None (default), the config option MNE_BROWSER_THEME will be used, defaulting to “auto” if it’s not found. Only supported by the 'qt' backend.

New in v1.0.

overview_modestr | None

Can be “channels”, “empty”, or “hidden” to set the overview bar mode for the 'qt' backend. If None (default), the config option MNE_BROWSER_OVERVIEW_MODE will be used, defaulting to “channels” if it’s not found.

New in v1.1.


If True (default), a splash screen is shown during the application startup. Only applicable to the qt backend.

New in v1.6.

verbosebool | str | int | None

Control verbosity of the logging output. If None, use the default verbosity level. See the logging documentation and mne.verbose() for details. Should only be passed as a keyword argument.

figmatplotlib.figure.Figure | mne_qt_browser.figure.MNEQtBrowser

Browser instance.


The arrow keys (up/down/left/right) can typically be used to navigate between channels and time ranges, but this depends on the backend matplotlib is configured to use (e.g., mpl.use(‘TkAgg’) should work). The left/right arrows will scroll by 25% of duration, whereas shift+left/shift+right will scroll by 100% of duration. The scaling can be adjusted with - and + (or =) keys. The viewport dimensions can be adjusted with page up/page down and home/end keys. Full screen mode can be toggled with the F11 key, and scrollbars can be hidden/shown by pressing ‘z’. Right-click a channel label to view its location. To mark or un-mark a channel as bad, click on a channel label or a channel trace. The changes will be reflected immediately in the raw object’s['bads'] entry.

If projectors are present, a button labelled “Prj” in the lower right corner of the plot window opens a secondary control window, which allows enabling/disabling specific projectors individually. This provides a means of interactively observing how each projector would affect the raw data if it were applied.

Annotation mode is toggled by pressing ‘a’, butterfly mode by pressing ‘b’, and whitening mode (when noise_cov is not None) by pressing ‘w’. By default, the channel means are removed when remove_dc is set to True. This flag can be toggled by pressing ‘d’.

MNE-Python provides two different backends for browsing plots (i.e., raw.plot(), epochs.plot(), and ica.plot_sources()). One is based on matplotlib, and the other is based on PyQtGraph. You can set the backend temporarily with the context manager mne.viz.use_browser_backend(), you can set it for the duration of a Python session using mne.viz.set_browser_backend(), and you can set the default for your computer via mne.set_config('MNE_BROWSER_BACKEND', 'matplotlib') (or 'qt').


For the PyQtGraph backend to run in IPython with block=False you must run the magic command %gui qt5 first.


To report issues with the PyQtGraph backend, please use the issues of mne-qt-browser.