mne.viz.plot_raw_psd(raw, fmin=0, fmax=inf, tmin=None, tmax=None, proj=False, n_fft=None, n_overlap=0, reject_by_annotation=True, picks=None, ax=None, color='black', xscale='linear', area_mode='std', area_alpha=0.33, dB=True, estimate='auto', show=True, n_jobs=1, average=False, line_alpha=None, spatial_colors=True, sphere=None, verbose=None)[source]

Plot the power spectral density across channels.

Different channel types are drawn in sub-plots. When the data have been processed with a bandpass, lowpass or highpass filter, dashed lines indicate the boundaries of the filter (–). The line noise frequency is also indicated with a dashed line (-.).

rawinstance of Raw

The raw object.


Start frequency to consider.


End frequency to consider.

tminfloat | None

Start time to consider.

tmaxfloat | None

End time to consider.


Apply projection.

n_fftint | None

Number of points to use in Welch FFT calculations. Default is None, which uses the minimum of 2048 and the number of time points.


The number of points of overlap between blocks. The default value is 0 (no overlap).


Whether to omit bad segments from the data before fitting. If True (default), annotated segments whose description begins with 'bad' are omitted. If False, no rejection based on annotations is performed.

Has no effect if inst is not a object.

picksstr | list | slice | None

Channels to include. Slices and lists of integers will be interpreted as channel indices. In lists, channel type strings (e.g., ['meg', 'eeg']) will pick channels of those types, channel name strings (e.g., ['MEG0111', 'MEG2623'] will pick the given channels. Can also be the string values “all” to pick all channels, or “data” to pick data channels. None (default) will pick good data channels Cannot be None if ax is supplied.If both picks and ax are None separate subplots will be created for each standard channel type (mag, grad, and eeg).

axinstance of Axes | None

Axes to plot into. If None, axes will be created.

colorstr | tuple

A matplotlib-compatible color to use. Has no effect when spatial_colors=True.


Can be ‘linear’ (default) or ‘log’.

area_modestr | None

Mode for plotting area. If ‘std’, the mean +/- 1 STD (across channels) will be plotted. If ‘range’, the min and max (across channels) will be plotted. Bad channels will be excluded from these calculations. If None, no area will be plotted. If average=False, no area is plotted.


Alpha for the area.


Plot Power Spectral Density (PSD), in units (amplitude**2/Hz (dB)) if dB=True, and estimate='power' or estimate='auto'. Plot PSD in units (amplitude**2/Hz) if dB=False and, estimate='power'. Plot Amplitude Spectral Density (ASD), in units (amplitude/sqrt(Hz)), if dB=False and estimate='amplitude' or estimate='auto'. Plot ASD, in units (amplitude/sqrt(Hz) (db)), if dB=True and estimate='amplitude'.

estimatestr, {‘auto’, ‘power’, ‘amplitude’}

Can be “power” for power spectral density (PSD), “amplitude” for amplitude spectrum density (ASD), or “auto” (default), which uses “power” when dB is True and “amplitude” otherwise.


Show figure if True.


The number of jobs to run in parallel (default 1). Requires the joblib package.


If False, the PSDs of all channels is displayed. No averaging is done and parameters area_mode and area_alpha are ignored. When False, it is possible to paint an area (hold left mouse button and drag) to plot a topomap.

line_alphafloat | None

Alpha for the PSD line. Can be None (default) to use 1.0 when average=True and 0.1 when average=False.


Whether to use spatial colors. Only used when average=False.

spherefloat | array_like | str | None

The sphere parameters to use for the cartoon head. Can be array-like of shape (4,) to give the X/Y/Z origin and radius in meters, or a single float to give the radius (origin assumed 0, 0, 0). Can also be a spherical ConductorModel, which will use the origin and radius. Can be “auto” to use a digitization-based fit. Can also be None (default) to use ‘auto’ when enough extra digitization points are available, and 0.095 otherwise. Currently the head radius does not affect plotting.

New in version 0.20.

verbosebool, str, int, or None

If not None, override default verbose level (see mne.verbose() and Logging documentation for more).

figinstance of Figure

Figure with frequency spectra of the data channels.

Examples using mne.viz.plot_raw_psd