mne.apply_forward_raw(fwd, stc, info, start=None, stop=None, on_missing='raise', use_cps=True, verbose=None)[source]#

Project source space currents to sensor space using a forward operator.

The sensor space data is computed for all channels present in fwd. Use pick_channels_forward or pick_types_forward to restrict the solution to a subset of channels.

The function returns a Raw object, which is constructed using provided info. The info object should be from the same MEG system on which the original data was acquired. An exception will be raised if the forward operator contains channels that are not present in the info.


Forward operator to use.


The source estimate from which the sensor space data is computed.


The mne.Info object with information about the sensors and methods of measurement.

startint, optional

Index of first time sample (index not time is seconds).

stopint, optional

Index of first time sample not to include (index not time is seconds).

on_missing‘raise’ | ‘warn’ | ‘ignore’

Can be 'raise' (default) to raise an error, 'warn' to emit a warning, or 'ignore' to ignore when stc has vertices that are not in fwd. Default is “raise”.

New in v0.18.


Whether to use cortical patch statistics to define normal orientations for surfaces (default True).

New in v0.21.

verbosebool | str | int | None

Control verbosity of the logging output. If None, use the default verbosity level. See the logging documentation and mne.verbose() for details. Should only be passed as a keyword argument.

rawRaw object

Raw object with computed sensor space data.

See also


Compute sensor space data and return an Evoked object.