mne.viz.plot_epochs_psd_topomap(epochs, bands=None, tmin=None, tmax=None, proj=False, *, bandwidth=None, adaptive=False, low_bias=True, normalization='length', ch_type=None, normalize=False, agg_fun=None, dB=False, sensors=True, names=None, mask=None, mask_params=None, contours=0, outlines='head', sphere=None, image_interp='cubic', extrapolate='auto', border='mean', res=64, size=1, cmap=None, vlim=(None, None), cnorm=None, colorbar=True, cbar_fmt='auto', units=None, axes=None, show=True, n_jobs=None, verbose=None)[source]#


LEGACY: New code should use Epochs.compute_psd().plot_topomap().

Plot the topomap of the power spectral density across epochs.

epochsinstance of Epochs

The epochs object.

bandsNone | dict | list of tuple

The frequencies or frequency ranges to plot. If a dict, keys will be used as subplot titles and values should be either a single frequency (e.g., {'presentation rate': 6.5}) or a length-two sequence of lower and upper frequency band edges (e.g., {'theta': (4, 8)}). If a single frequency is provided, the plot will show the frequency bin that is closest to the requested value. If None (the default), expands to:

bands = {'Delta (0-4 Hz)': (0, 4), 'Theta (4-8 Hz)': (4, 8),
         'Alpha (8-12 Hz)': (8, 12), 'Beta (12-30 Hz)': (12, 30),
         'Gamma (30-45 Hz)': (30, 45)}


For backwards compatibility, tuples of length 2 or 3 are also accepted, where the last element of the tuple is the subplot title and the other entries are frequency values (a single value or band edges). New code should use dict or None.

Changed in version 1.2: Allow passing a dict and discourage passing tuples.

tmin, tmaxfloat | None

First and last times to include, in seconds. None uses the first or last time present in the data. Default is tmin=None, tmax=None (all times).


Whether to apply SSP projection vectors before spectral estimation. Default is False.


The bandwidth of the multi taper windowing function in Hz. The default value is a window half-bandwidth of 4 Hz.


Use adaptive weights to combine the tapered spectra into PSD (slow, use n_jobs >> 1 to speed up computation).


Only use tapers with more than 90% spectral concentration within bandwidth.

normalization‘full’ | ‘length’

Normalization strategy. If “full”, the PSD will be normalized by the sampling rate as well as the length of the signal (as in Nitime). Default is 'length'.

ch_type‘mag’ | ‘grad’ | ‘planar1’ | ‘planar2’ | ‘eeg’ | None

The channel type to plot. For 'grad', the gradiometers are collected in pairs and the mean for each pair is plotted. If None the first available channel type from order shown above is used. Defaults to None.


If True, each band will be divided by the total power. Defaults to False.


The function used to aggregate over frequencies. Defaults to numpy.sum() if normalize=True, else numpy.mean().


Whether to plot on a decibel-like scale. If True, plots 10 × log₁₀(spectral power) following the application of agg_fun. Ignored if normalize=True.

sensorsbool | str

Whether to add markers for sensor locations. If str, should be a valid matplotlib format string (e.g., 'r+' for red plusses, see the Notes section of plot()). If True (the default), black circles will be used.

namesNone | list

Labels for the sensors. If a list, labels should correspond to the order of channels in data. If None (default), no channel names are plotted.

maskndarray of bool, shape (n_channels, n_times) | None

Array indicating channel-time combinations to highlight with a distinct plotting style (useful for, e.g. marking which channels at which times a statistical test of the data reaches significance). Array elements set to True will be plotted with the parameters given in mask_params. Defaults to None, equivalent to an array of all False elements.

mask_paramsdict | None

Additional plotting parameters for plotting significant sensors. Default (None) equals:

dict(marker='o', markerfacecolor='w', markeredgecolor='k',
        linewidth=0, markersize=4)
contoursint | array_like

The number of contour lines to draw. If 0, no contours will be drawn. If a positive integer, that number of contour levels are chosen using the matplotlib tick locator (may sometimes be inaccurate, use array for accuracy). If array-like, the array values are used as the contour levels. The values should be in µV for EEG, fT for magnetometers and fT/m for gradiometers. If colorbar=True, the colorbar will have ticks corresponding to the contour levels. Default is 6.

outlines‘head’ | dict | None

The outlines to be drawn. If ‘head’, the default head scheme will be drawn. If dict, each key refers to a tuple of x and y positions, the values in ‘mask_pos’ will serve as image mask. Alternatively, a matplotlib patch object can be passed for advanced masking options, either directly or as a function that returns patches (required for multi-axis plots). If None, nothing will be drawn. Defaults to ‘head’.

spherefloat | array_like | instance of ConductorModel | None | ‘auto’ | ‘eeglab’

The sphere parameters to use for the head outline. Can be array-like of shape (4,) to give the X/Y/Z origin and radius in meters, or a single float to give just the radius (origin assumed 0, 0, 0). Can also be an instance of a spherical ConductorModel to use the origin and radius from that object. If 'auto' the sphere is fit to digitization points. If 'eeglab' the head circle is defined by EEG electrodes 'Fpz', 'Oz', 'T7', and 'T8' (if 'Fpz' is not present, it will be approximated from the coordinates of 'Oz'). None (the default) is equivalent to 'auto' when enough extra digitization points are available, and (0, 0, 0, 0.095) otherwise.

New in v0.20.

Changed in version 1.1: Added 'eeglab' option.


The image interpolation to be used. Options are 'cubic' (default) to use scipy.interpolate.CloughTocher2DInterpolator, 'nearest' to use scipy.spatial.Voronoi or 'linear' to use scipy.interpolate.LinearNDInterpolator.



  • 'box'

    Extrapolate to four points placed to form a square encompassing all data points, where each side of the square is three times the range of the data in the respective dimension.

  • 'local' (default for MEG sensors)

    Extrapolate only to nearby points (approximately to points closer than median inter-electrode distance). This will also set the mask to be polygonal based on the convex hull of the sensors.

  • 'head' (default for non-MEG sensors)

    Extrapolate out to the edges of the clipping circle. This will be on the head circle when the sensors are contained within the head circle, but it can extend beyond the head when sensors are plotted outside the head circle.

Changed in version 0.21:

  • The default was changed to 'local' for MEG sensors.

  • 'local' was changed to use a convex hull mask

  • 'head' was changed to extrapolate out to the clipping circle.

borderfloat | ‘mean’

Value to extrapolate to on the topomap borders. If 'mean' (default), then each extrapolated point has the average value of its neighbours.

New in v0.20.


The resolution of the topomap image (number of pixels along each side).


Side length of each subplot in inches.

cmapmatplotlib colormap | (colormap, bool) | ‘interactive’ | None

Colormap to use. If tuple, the first value indicates the colormap to use and the second value is a boolean defining interactivity. In interactive mode the colors are adjustable by clicking and dragging the colorbar with left and right mouse button. Left mouse button moves the scale up and down and right mouse button adjusts the range. Hitting space bar resets the range. Up and down arrows can be used to change the colormap. If None, 'Reds' is used for data that is either all-positive or all-negative, and 'RdBu_r' is used otherwise. 'interactive' is equivalent to (None, True). Defaults to None.


Interactive mode works smoothly only for a small amount of topomaps. Interactive mode is disabled by default for more than 2 topomaps.

vlimtuple of length 2 | “joint”

Lower and upper bounds of the colormap, typically a numeric value in the same units as the data. Elements of the tuple may also be callable functions which take in a NumPy array and return a scalar.

If both entries are None, the bounds are set at ± the maximum absolute value of the data (yielding a colormap with midpoint at 0), or (0, max(abs(data))) if the (possibly baselined) data are all-positive. Providing None for just one entry will set the corresponding boundary at the min/max of the data. If vlim="joint", will compute the colormap limits jointly across all topomaps of the same channel type (instead of separately for each topomap), using the min/max of the data for that channel type. Defaults to (None, None).

New in v0.21.

cnormmatplotlib.colors.Normalize | None

How to normalize the colormap. If None, standard linear normalization is performed. If not None, vmin and vmax will be ignored. See Matplotlib docs for more details on colormap normalization, and the ERDs example for an example of its use.

New in v1.2.


Plot a colorbar in the rightmost column of the figure.


Formatting string for colorbar tick labels. See Format Specification Mini-Language for details. If 'auto', is equivalent to ‘%0.3f’ if dB=False and ‘%0.1f’ if dB=True. Defaults to 'auto'.

unitsstr | None

The units to use for the colorbar label. Ignored if colorbar=False. If None the label will be “AU” indicating arbitrary units. Default is None.

axesinstance of Axes | list of Axes | None

The axes to plot into. If None, a new Figure will be created with the correct number of axes. If Axes are provided (either as a single instance or a list of axes), the number of axes provided must match the length of bands. Default is None.


Show the figure if True.

n_jobsint | None

The number of jobs to run in parallel. If -1, it is set to the number of CPU cores. Requires the joblib package. None (default) is a marker for ‘unset’ that will be interpreted as n_jobs=1 (sequential execution) unless the call is performed under a joblib.parallel_config context manager that sets another value for n_jobs.

verbosebool | str | int | None

Control verbosity of the logging output. If None, use the default verbosity level. See the logging documentation and mne.verbose() for details. Should only be passed as a keyword argument.

figinstance of Figure

Figure showing one scalp topography per frequency band.