- mne.viz.plot_raw(raw, events=None, duration=10.0, start=0.0, n_channels=20, bgcolor='w', color=None, bad_color='lightgray', event_color='cyan', scalings=None, remove_dc=True, order=None, show_options=False, title=None, show=True, block=False, highpass=None, lowpass=None, filtorder=4, clipping=1.5, show_first_samp=False, proj=True, group_by='type', butterfly=False, decim='auto', noise_cov=None, event_id=None, show_scrollbars=True, show_scalebars=True, time_format='float', precompute=None, use_opengl=None, *, theme=None, overview_mode=None, splash=True, verbose=None)#
Plot raw data.
- rawinstance of
The raw data to plot.
Events to show with vertical bars.
Time window (s) to plot. The lesser of this value and the duration of the raw file will be used.
Initial time to show (can be changed dynamically once plotted). If show_first_samp is True, then it is taken relative to
Number of channels to plot at once. Defaults to 20. The lesser of
len(raw.ch_names)will be shown. Has no effect if
orderis ‘position’, ‘selection’ or ‘butterfly’.
- bgcolorcolor object
Color of the background.
dict| color object |
Color for the data traces. If None, defaults to:
dict(mag='darkblue', grad='b', eeg='k', eog='k', ecg='m', emg='k', ref_meg='steelblue', misc='k', stim='k', resp='k', chpi='k')
- bad_colorcolor object
Color to make bad channels.
- event_colorcolor object |
Color(s) to use for events. To show all events in the same color, pass any matplotlib-compatible color. To color events differently, pass a
dictthat maps event names or integer event numbers to colors (must include entries for all events, or include a “fallback” entry with key
None, colors are chosen from the current Matplotlib color cycle. Defaults to
- scalings‘auto’ |
Scaling factors for the traces. If a dictionary where any value is
'auto', the scaling factor is set to match the 99.5th percentile of the respective data. If
'auto', all scalings (for all channel types) are set to
'auto'. If any values are
'auto'and the data is not preloaded, a subset up to 100 MB will be loaded. If
None, defaults to:
dict(mag=1e-12, grad=4e-11, eeg=20e-6, eog=150e-6, ecg=5e-4, emg=1e-3, ref_meg=1e-12, misc=1e-3, stim=1, resp=1, chpi=1e-4, whitened=1e2)
A particular scaling value
scorresponds to half of the visualized signal range around zero (i.e. from
-s). For example, the default scaling of
20e-6(20µV) for EEG signals means that the visualized range will be 40 µV (20 µV in the positive direction and 20 µV in the negative direction).
If True remove DC component when plotting data.
Order in which to plot data. If the array is shorter than the number of channels, only the given channels are plotted. If None (default), all channels are plotted. If
orderparameter is used only for selecting the channels to be plotted.
If True, a dialog for options related to projection is shown.
The title of the window. If None, and either the filename of the raw object or ‘<unknown>’ will be displayed as title.
Show figure if True.
Whether to halt program execution until the figure is closed. Useful for setting bad channels on the fly by clicking on a line. May not work on all systems / platforms. (Only Qt) If you run from a script, this needs to be
Trueor a Qt-eventloop needs to be started somewhere else in the script (e.g. if you want to implement the browser inside another Qt-Application).
Highpass to apply when displaying data.
Lowpass to apply when displaying data. If highpass > lowpass, a bandstop rather than bandpass filter will be applied.
Filtering order. 0 will use FIR filtering with MNE defaults. Other values will construct an IIR filter of the given order and apply it with
filtfilt()(making the effective order twice
filtorder). Filtering may produce some edge artifacts (at the left and right edges) of the signals during display.
Changed in version 0.18: Support for
filtorder=0to use FIR filtering.
If None, channels are allowed to exceed their designated bounds in the plot. If “clamp”, then values are clamped to the appropriate range for display, creating step-like artifacts. If “transparent”, then excessive values are not shown, creating gaps in the traces. If float, clipping occurs for values beyond the
clippingmultiple of their dedicated range, so
clipping=1.is an alias for
Changed in version 0.21: Support for float, and default changed from None to 1.5.
If True, show time axis relative to the
Whether to apply projectors prior to plotting (default is
True). Individual projectors can be enabled/disabled interactively (see Notes). This argument only affects the plot; use
raw.apply_proj()to modify the data stored in the Raw object.
How to group channels.
'type'groups by channel type,
'original'plots in the order of ch_names,
'selection'uses Elekta’s channel groupings (only works for Neuromag data),
'position'groups the channels by the positions of the sensors.
'position'modes allow custom selections by using a lasso selector on the topomap. In butterfly mode,
'original'group the channels by type, whereas
'position'use regional grouping.
'original'modes are ignored when
None. Defaults to
Whether to start in butterfly mode. Defaults to False.
Amount to decimate the data during display for speed purposes. You should only decimate if the data are sufficiently low-passed, otherwise aliasing can occur. The ‘auto’ mode (default) uses the decimation that results in a sampling rate least three times larger than
min(info['lowpass'], lowpass)(e.g., a 40 Hz lowpass will result in at least a 120 Hz displayed sample rate).
- noise_covinstance of
Noise covariance used to whiten the data while plotting. Whitened data channels are scaled by
scalings['whitened'], and their channel names are shown in italic. Can be a string to load a covariance from disk. See also
mne.Evoked.plot_white()for additional inspection of noise covariance properties when whitening evoked data. For data processed with SSS, the effective dependence between magnetometers and gradiometers may introduce differences in scaling, consider using
New in v0.16.0.
Event IDs used to show at event markers (default None shows the event numbers).
New in v0.16.0.
Whether to show scrollbars when the plot is initialized. Can be toggled after initialization by pressing z (“zen mode”) while the plot window is focused. Default is
New in v0.19.0.
Whether to show scale bars when the plot is initialized. Can be toggled after initialization by pressing s while the plot window is focused. Default is
New in v0.20.0.
- time_format‘float’ | ‘clock’
Style of time labels on the horizontal axis. If
'float', labels will be number of seconds from the start of the recording. If
'clock', labels will show “clock time” (hours/minutes/seconds) inferred from
raw.info['meas_date']. Default is
New in v0.24.
- precomputebool |
Whether to load all data (not just the visible portion) into RAM and apply preprocessing (e.g., projectors) to the full data array in a separate processor thread, instead of window-by-window during scrolling. The default None uses the
MNE_BROWSER_PRECOMPUTEvariable, which defaults to
'auto'compares available RAM space to the expected size of the precomputed data, and precomputes only if enough RAM is available. This is only used with the Qt backend.
New in v0.24.
Changed in version 1.0: Support for the MNE_BROWSER_PRECOMPUTE config variable.
- use_openglbool |
Whether to use OpenGL when rendering the plot (requires
pyopengl). May increase performance, but effect is dependent on system CPU and graphics hardware. Only works if using the Qt backend. Default is None, which will use False unless the user configuration variable
MNE_BROWSER_USE_OPENGLis set to
New in v0.24.
Can be “auto”, “light”, or “dark” or a path-like to a custom stylesheet. For Dark-Mode and automatic Dark-Mode-Detection,
qdarkstyleand darkdetect, respectively, are required. If None (default), the config option MNE_BROWSER_THEME will be used, defaulting to “auto” if it’s not found. Only supported by the
New in v1.0.
Can be “channels”, “empty”, or “hidden” to set the overview bar mode for the
'qt'backend. If None (default), the config option
MNE_BROWSER_OVERVIEW_MODEwill be used, defaulting to “channels” if it’s not found.
New in v1.1.
If True (default), a splash screen is shown during the application startup. Only applicable to the
New in v1.6.
- verbosebool |
- rawinstance of
The arrow keys (up/down/left/right) can typically be used to navigate between channels and time ranges, but this depends on the backend matplotlib is configured to use (e.g., mpl.use(‘TkAgg’) should work). The left/right arrows will scroll by 25% of
duration, whereas shift+left/shift+right will scroll by 100% of
duration. The scaling can be adjusted with - and + (or =) keys. The viewport dimensions can be adjusted with page up/page down and home/end keys. Full screen mode can be toggled with the F11 key, and scrollbars can be hidden/shown by pressing ‘z’. Right-click a channel label to view its location. To mark or un-mark a channel as bad, click on a channel label or a channel trace. The changes will be reflected immediately in the raw object’s
If projectors are present, a button labelled “Prj” in the lower right corner of the plot window opens a secondary control window, which allows enabling/disabling specific projectors individually. This provides a means of interactively observing how each projector would affect the raw data if it were applied.
Annotation mode is toggled by pressing ‘a’, butterfly mode by pressing ‘b’, and whitening mode (when
noise_cov is not None) by pressing ‘w’. By default, the channel means are removed when
remove_dcis set to
True. This flag can be toggled by pressing ‘d’.
MNE-Python provides two different backends for browsing plots (i.e.,
ica.plot_sources()). One is based on
matplotlib, and the other is based on PyQtGraph. You can set the backend temporarily with the context manager
mne.viz.use_browser_backend(), you can set it for the duration of a Python session using
mne.viz.set_browser_backend(), and you can set the default for your computer via
For the PyQtGraph backend to run in IPython with
block=Falseyou must run the magic command
To report issues with the PyQtGraph backend, please use the issues of